A. The Upheaval in Western Christendom, c. 1300-1560

A.1. Introduction 

A.2. Disasters of the Fourteenth Century 

A.3. The Renaissance in Italy 

A.4. The Renaissance Outside Italy 

A.5. The New Monarchies 

A.6. The Reformation 

A.7. Catholicism Reformed and Reorganized 

B. Economic Renewal and Wars of Religion, 1560-1648

B.1. Introduction 

B.2. The Opening of the Atlantic 

B.3. The Commercial Revolution 

B.4. Changing Social Structures 

B.5. The Wars of Catholic Spain: The Netherlands and England 

B.6. The Disintegration and Reconstruction of France

B.7. The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648: The Disintegration of Germany 

C. The Scientific View of the World 

C.1. Introduction 

C.2. Prophets of a Scientific Revolution: Bacon and Descartes 

C.3. The Road to Newton: The Law of Universal Gravitation 

C.4. New Knowledge of Human Beings and Society 

C.5. Political Theory: The School of Natural Law 

D. The Growing Power of Western Europe, 1640-1715 

D.1. Introduction 

D.2. The Grande Monarque and the Balance of Power 

D.3. The Dutch Republic

D.4. Britain: The Puritan Revolution 

D.5. Britain: The Triumph of Parliament 

D.6. The France of Louis XIV, 1643-1715: The Triumph of Absolutism 

D.7. The Wars of Louis XIV: The Peace of Utrecht, 1713 

E. The Transformation of Eastern Europe, 1648-1740

E.1. Introduction 

E.2. Three Aging Empires 

E.3. The Formation of an Austrian Monarchy 

E.4. The Formation of Prussia 

E.5. The "Westernizing" of Russia 

E.6. The Partitions of Poland 

F. The Struggle for Wealth and Empire 

F.1. Introduction 

F.2. Elite and Popular Cultures 

F.3. The Global Economy of the Eighteenth Century 

F.4. Western Europe after Utrecht, 1713-1740 

F.5. The Great War of the Mid-Eighteenth Century: The Peace of Paris, 1763 

G. The Age of Enlightenment 

G.1. Introduction 

G.2. The Philosophes—and Others 

G.3. Enlightened Despotism: France, Austria, and Prussia 

G.4. Enlightened Despotism: Russia 

G.5. New Stirrings: The British Reform Movement 

G.6. The American Revolution 

H. The French Revolution 

H.1. Introduction 

H.2. Backgrounds 

H.3. The Revolution and Reorganization of France 

H.4. The Revolution and Europe: The War and the "Second" Revolution, 1792

H.5. The Emergency Republic, 1792-1795: The Terror 

H.6. The Constitutional Republic, 1795-1799: The Directory 

H.7. The Authoritarian Republic, 1799-1804: The Consulate 

I. The Age of Napoléon and the Triumph of Romanticism 

I.1. Introduction 

I.2. The Formation of the French Imperial System

I.3. The Grand Empire: Spread of the Revolution and the Continental System: Britain and Europe 

I.4. The National Movements: Germany 

I.5. The Overthrow of Napoléon: The Congress of Vienna 

J. Industries, Ideas, and the Struggle for Reform, 1815-1848 

J.1. Introduction 

J.2. The Advent of the "Isms" 

J.3. The Dike and the Flood: Domestic 

J.4. The Dike and the Flood: International 

J.5. The Breakthrough of Liberalism in the West: Revolutions of 1830-1832 

J.6. Triumph of the West European Bourgeoisie 

K. The Industrial Revolution 

K.1. Introduction 

K.2. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain 

K.3. Population, Migration, and Railroads 

K.4. Emergence of a Wage-Labor Force 

K.5. Working-Class Political Action 

K.6. Family in the Factory System 

K.7. Women in the Industrial Revolution 

K.8. Urban Life

L. Revolutions and the Reimposition of Order, 1848-1870 

L.1. Introduction 

L.2. Paris: The Specter of Social Revolution in the West 

L.3. Vienna: The Nationalist Revolution in Central Europe and Italy 

L.4. Frankfurt and Berlin: The Question of a Liberal Germany 

L.5. The New Toughness of Mind: Realism, Positivism, Marxism 

L.6. Bonapartism: The Second French Empire, 1852-1870 

M. The Global Consolidation of Large Nation-States, 1859-1871 

M.1. Introduction 

M.2. Backgrounds: The Idea of the Nation-State 

M.3. Cavour and the Italian War of 1859: The Unification of Italy 

M.4. Bismarck: The Founding of a German Empire 

M.5. Franz Josef: The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary 

M.6. Alexander II: Liberalization in Tsarist Russia 

M.7. The United States: The American Civil War 

M.8. The Dominion of Canada, 1867 

M.9. Japan and the West

N. European Civilization, 1871-1914: Economy and Politics 

N.1. Introduction 

N.2. The "Civilized World" 

N.3. Basic Demography: The Increase of Europeans 

N.4. The World Economy of the Nineteenth Century 

N.5. The Advance of Democracy: Third French Republic, United Kingdom, German Empire 

O. European Civilization, 1871-1914: Society and Culture 

O.1. Introduction 

O.2. The Advance of Democracy: Socialism and Labor Unions 

O.3. Science, Philosophy, the Arts, and Religion 

O.4. The Waning of Classical Liberalism 

P. Europe's World Supremacy, 1871-1914

P.1. Introduction 

P.2. Imperialism: Its Nature and Causes 

P.3. The Americas 

P.4. The Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire 

P.5. The Partition of Africa 

P.6. Imperialism in Asia: The Dutch, the British, and the Russians 

P.7. Imperialism in Asia: China and the West 

P.8. The Russo-Japanese War and its Consequences 

Q. The First World War 

Q.1. Introduction 

Q.2. The International Anarchy 

Q.3. The Armed Stalemate 

Q.4. The Collapse of Russia and the Intervention of the United States 

Q.5. The Collapse of the Austrian and German Empires 

Q.6. The Economic, Social, and Cultural Impact of the War 

Q.7. The Peace of Paris, 1919 

R. The Russian Revolution and the Soviet Union 

R.1. Introduction 

R.2. Backgrounds 

R.3. The Revolution of 1905 

R.4. The Revolution of 1917 

R.5. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 

R.6. Stalin: The Five-Year Plans and the Purges 

R.7. The International Impact of Communism, 1919-1939 

S. The Apparent Victory of Democracy 

S.1. Introduction 

S.2. The Advance of Democracy after 1919 

S.3. The German Republic and the Spirit of Locarno 

S.4. The Anti-Imperialist Movements in Asia 

S.5. The Great Depression: Collapse of the World Economy 

T. Democracy and Dictatorship 

T.1. Introduction 

T.2. The United States: Depression and New Deal 

T.3. Trials and Adjustments of Democracy in Britain and France 

T.4. Italian Fascism 

T.5. Totalitarianism: Germany's Third Reich

U. The Second World War

U.1. Introduction 

U.2. The Weakness of the Democracies: Again to War 

U.3. The Years of Axis Triumph 

U.4. The Western-Soviet Victory 

U.5. The Foundations of the Peace 

V. The Cold War and Reconstruction after the Second World War 

V.1. Introduction 

V.2. The Cold War: The Opening Decade, 1945-1955 

V.3. Western Europe: Economic Reconstruction

V.4. Western Europe: Political Reconstruction 

V.5. Reshaping the Global Economy 

V.6. The Communist World: The USSR and Eastern Europe 

V.7. The Communist World: Mao Zedong and the People's Republic of China

W. Empires into Nations: Decolonization after the Second World War

W.1. Introduction 

W.2. The Emergence of Independent States in South Asia 

W.3. The Emergence of Independent States in Southeast Asia 

W.4. Changing Latin America 

W.5. The African Revolution 

W.6. Ferment in the Middle East 

W.7. Revolution and War in the Persian Gulf 

W.8. The "Developing" World 

X. Coexistence, Confrontation, and the New Global Economy 

X.1. Introduction 

X.2. Confrontation and Détente, 1955-1975 

X.3. Collapse and Recovery of the Global Economy: The 1970s and 1980s 

X.4. The Cold War Rekindled 

X.5. China after Mao 

Y. The International Revolt Against Soviet Communism 

Y.1. Introduction 

Y.2. The Crisis in the Soviet Union 

Y.3. The Collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe 

Y.4. The Collapse of the Soviet Union 

Y.5. After Communism 

Z. The Changing Modern World 

Z.1. Introduction 

Z.2. Western Europe after the Cold War

Z.3. Nation-States and Economies in the Age of Globalization 

Z.4. Intellectual and Social Transitions in Modern Cultures 

Z.5. International Conflict in the Twenty-First Century 

Z.6. Social Challenges in the Twenty-First Century